Wednesday, May 4, 2016

History of the Cowboy Hat by Cheri Kay Clifton



 Sweethearts, after writing this blog and getting ready to publish it, I was chagrined to see that Celia had written a very interesting post about the cowboy hat last month which I obviously had missed reading while I was traveling without my computer.  I apologize for any repetition about the history of the cowboy hat, but rather than delete the article, thought there's enough different info worth keeping it.  And my apology to Celia, please forgive my oversight. 

     The cowboy hat is recognized around the world as a symbol of the American West. Vaqueros and Texans wore broad-brimmed felt hats long before John B. Stetson made his first trip to Colorado. The Spanish influence was so pervasive in the West that mail order catalogs, as late as 1900, still referred to the hat of the "cow boy" as a sombrero.
     Felt hats were, and still are, made from the fine hair of beaver, rabbit, and other small mammals to withstand the elements. The processed hair is compressed into felt and emerges as a cone-shaped hat body. Hat makers use steam to mold the hat body over a form or hat block. Early hats came in black and natural-fur colors, with white and color-dyed selections appearing on the market after 1920.
      It is not clear when the cowboy hat began to be named as such. Westerners originally had no standard headwear. People moving West wore many styles of hat, including top hats, derbies, remains of Civil War headgear, sailor hats and everything else.
     Credit for the American cowboy hat as it is known today is generally given to John Batterson Stetson. His family had manufactured hats in New Jersey since 1790, but when John Stetson established his shop in Philadelphia in 1865, he had his eyes on the West. Cattlemen needed hats that would protect them from the elements and not fall apart. Stetson supplied quality felt hats in popular styles. Though other hats were available in the West, Stetson was the largest producer   and a genius at creating and marketing what became known as the “Boss of the Plains.”
     

     Thanks to its durability, the hat was ideal for the demands of the working Westerner and became incredibly popular.  The charisma of the West was carried back East when adventurers returned in the expensive “Boss of the plains” style hat.  In the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, a hat was an indispensable item in every man’s wardrobe. Stetson focused on expensive, high-quality hats that represented both a real investment for the working cowboy and statement of success for the city dweller.


"The Ten-Gallon Hat"

     Some cowboy hats have been called "ten-gallon" hats. The term came into use about 1925. There are multiple theories for how the concept arose.
     One theory is that the term "ten-gallon" is a corruption of the Spanish modifier tan galán, which loosely translates as "really handsome" or "so fine". For example, un sombrero tan galán translates as "such a fine hat".
     Another theory is that the term "ten-gallon" is a corruption of the Spanish term galón, which means "galloon", a type of narrow braided trimming around the crown, possibly a style adapted by Spanish cowboys. When Texas cowboys misunderstood the word galón for "gallon", the popular, though incorrect, legend may have been born. According to Reynolds and Rand, "The term ten-gallon did not originally refer to the holding capacity of the hat, but to the width of a Mexican sombrero hatband, and is more closely related to this unit of measurement by the Spanish than to the water-holding capacity of a Stetson.”
     Stetson Hat Company boasted that the tight weave of most Stetsons hats made them sufficiently waterproof to be used as a bucket. Early print advertising by Stetson showed a cowboy giving his horse a drink of water from a hat.  However, even the Stetson Company notes that a "ten-gallon" hat holds only 3 quarts.
     The durability and water-resistance of the original Stetson obtained additional publicity in 1912, when the battleship USS Maine was raised from Havana harbor, where it had sunk in 1898. A Stetson hat was found in the wreck, which had been submerged in seawater for 14 years. The hat had been exposed to ooze, mud, and plant growth. However, the hat was cleaned off, and appeared to be undamaged.

     The first American law-enforcement agency to adopt Stetson’s western hat as part of their uniform was the Texas Rangers. A Stetson-based design is also part of the ceremonial uniform of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
     Presidents Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, Lyndon B Johnson, Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush wore cowboy hats manufactured by Stetson.


     Creases in cowboy hats are used to give hats individual character and to help users identify with a particular subculture. Creases and dents make it easier to don or remove the hat by grasping it by the crown rather than the brim. A very popular crease used on modern cowboy hats is the Cattlemen. It is creased straight down the center of the crown with a dent on each side. Returning in popularity is the Carlsbad crease, now often called a "Gus crease" after the character Gus McCrae in Lonesome Dove. It maintains a high crown at the back with the crease sloping steeply toward the front. The rodeo crease, the bullrider's crease (Formerly called the RCA crease, for the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association), the quarter horse crease, and the “tycoon", with a pinched front, are also seen today.


     Over time, the cowboy hat underwent changes in shape to better suit the needs of its owner and evolved into the form we are more familiar with today. The brim curved up on the sides to stay out of the way of a lasso, and the crown became pinched to allow better control.  Often a more decorative hat band is added.  In some places, “stampede strings” or wind strings” are also attached.
     Today the cowboy hat has become as much a part of fashion as it is function. Adorned by cowboys, cowgirls, rodeo athletes, musicians and movie stars alike, the cowboy hat is a truly traditional item of the West.
     So Sweethearts, knowing many of us have pictured our handsome heroes in our books tipping their cowboy hats to the ladies as they passed by, I’ll conclude this post with the rules John B. Stetson Hat Company dictated when a gentleman should tip his hat and when he should remove it.

Tip your hat:
If a woman thanks you
After receiving directions from a stranger
If you excuse yourself to a woman
When walking with a companion and he greets a woman not of your acquaintance

Remove your hat:
During the playing of the National Anthem
Upon entering a building
During an introduction
When attending a funeral
When initiating a conversation

Sources:
Wikipedia
Cowboymuseum.org

Monday, May 2, 2016

How Much Do You Know About The Old West?

By Paisley Kirkpatrick
Q: What famous Western shootist operated a saloon in Nome, Alaska, at the beginning of the twentieth century?
A: Wyatt Earp operated a Nome barroom during middle-age wanderings that took him to Texas, California, Idaho, Kansas, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada and Alaska, before he retired in Los Angeles in 1906.
Q: When was Jesse James murdered, what was he doing at the time of his death and who killed him?
A: On April 3, 1882, Jesse James was killed from behind by a single shot to the head fired by gang member Bob Ford. The notorious outlaw leader was brushing the dust off a wall picture in his home at St. Joseph, Missouri, when he was killed.
Q: In 1871 Deputy Sheriff Charles H. Nichols of Dallas, Texas, was shot to death trying to arrest John Younger, a member of the Jesse James-Cole Younger gang. Why was the sheriff trying to arrest Younger?
A: Younger, who escaped after gunning down the sheriff, was wanted by Dallas authorities for taking off a cowboy's nose while trying to shoot a pipe out of his mouth.
Q: What was the weight and speed of the bullet fired from the famous Colt .45 of the Old West?
A: The metallic cartridge originally designed for the .45-caliber Colt handgun, loaded with 40 grains of black powder, normally held a lead bullet weighing 233 to 265 grains, which was fired at a speed of 700 to 900 feet per second.
Q: Who killed the notorious gunfighter John Wesley Hardin?
A: On August 19, 1895, Hardin was shot and killed from behind by John Henry Selman, an outlaw-turned-constable who had a grudge against Hardin and surprised him in El Paso's Acme Saloon.
FACT: Billy the Kid was not left-handed. Contrary to Hollywood portrayals, like the 1958 Left-Handed Gun, Billy the Kid was right-handed. Popularizers of the Billy the Kid legend were sometimes misled by old photographs that were carelessly transposed when printed and made the young gunman appear to be wearing his weapon on his left side.
Taken from The Old West Quiz & Fact Book by Rod Gragg

Sunday, May 1, 2016

THE FIRST WESTERN TELEVISION SERIES BASED ON A FAMILY AND ITS MOST UNFORGETTABLE, ICONIC, & BELOVED CHARACTER

By Ashley Kath-Bilsky

From the late 1950s to early 1970s, westerns were among the most highly rated, popular television shows. Audiences (young and old) gathered together to watch their favorite show and remained loyal viewers. Even after the show was cancelled, once re-released via syndication, longtime fans returned to watch them again.

Most westerns during the Golden Age of Television focused on a lead actor (or main character) of the series. Tall, handsome, usually fit or lanky, they were cast to portray the expected image of a hero. Whether it was Marshal Matt Dillon (James Arness) on Gunsmoke((1955-1975), a West Point educated gun for hire such as Paladin (Richard Boone) in Have Gun, Will Travel (1957-1963), or a Civil War Vet turned Bounty Hunter named Josh Randall, (Steve McQueen) in Wanted: Dead or Alive (1958-1961), these characters were the main character upon whom the show revolved.

However, there was a new type of western on the horizon; a western titled BONANZA.

Not only was BONANZA a new show with new characters, the concept was new. Rather than a lead actor and supporting cast, or an ensemble cast of cowboys on a cattle drive, viewers met a close-knit family.

Additionally, every member within that family played an integral role and provided an important contribution to the whole. This ‘family-based’ concept also allowed for greater emotional depth and character development for each member within the family. Internal struggles, conflicts, strengths, weaknesses, and inter-relationships with one another and their relationships with their environment and community were addressed. In short, viewers not only got to truly believe they knew and understood each character, but often had a favorite character within the dynamic.

Set during and after the Civil War in Nevada, not far from Virginia City, on a 10,000 square mile ranch called the Ponderosa, each hour-long episode was filmed in color and transported viewers not only into the time and setting of the show, but somehow established a personal relationship with its audience.

With widower patriarch Ben Cartwright at the helm, (well, he was a former sea captain turned rancher), audiences were introduced to his three sons. Each son was born by a different mother who tragically died when they were far too young to know her.

Flashback episodes (also new to television) allowed viewers to learn about Ben’s past and each son’s mother. Whereas, many men with a young child remarried to provide a mother for their child, Ben Cartwright had fallen in love with each wife. In addition, his love for all three wives remained constant.

There were subtle attributes from each mother written into their child’s characterization. Whether by physical appearance, mannerisms, and/or personality traits, viewers were allowed to glean why each son was so different. At the same time, through skillful writing, directing, and portrayal by the talented actors, the audience recognized what Ben Cartwright (as the father) saw or felt when he looked upon his sons. Viewers never doubted for one moment his love and pride in his sons, or his understanding of how different they were—not only from one another but from him. At the same time, we never questioned how much the sons loved, respected, and honored their father in return.

And just like what happens when one reads a western novel and finds their attention intrigued by another member of a character’s family, viewers often developed a favorite character within BONANZA. And today I want to talk about my all-time favorite character among the Cartwright family. For many (including myself), despite the passing of years, he still remains not only the most beloved character on BONANZA, but an unforgettable hero who made us laugh and cry.

His name was Eric Cartwright, but everyone just called him Hoss.

As portrayed by Dan Blocker, Hoss Cartwright was the second child of Ben Cartwright (Lorne Greene). In a award-winning, consistently top rated television series that ran from 12 September 1959 through 16 January 1973, for millions of fans Dan Blocker WAS Hoss.

He endeared himself to children and adults with his performance as the tender-hearted, sometimes silly, always hard-working, honest-to-the-core, strong-as-an-ox defender of innocents, compassionate caregiver for animals, and the relentlessly steadfast, protective and loyal son and brother.

For many, including the cast and crew of BONANZA, Dan Blocker'a performance as Hoss provided the heart and soul of BONANZA. And when Blocker tragically died after complications from gallbladder surgery in 1972, the cast, crew, and millions of fans were devastated.

Who could replace this man? The answer was simple. No one.

Instead, BONANZA set yet another precedent for television.

BONANZA became the first television program to combine the loss of their friend, coworker, and actor, with the loss of his beloved character. The real-life death of Dan Blocker was written into the fate of his television character.

And as his cast mates deeply mourned his absence on a personal level, so did the audience. Still, much as the writers, cast, and crew tried to persevere and continue for the fans, the Ponderosa and BONANZA would never be the same.

After a 14-year run, NBC (National Broadcasting Company) cancelled BONANZA.

Never underestimate the power of a character or the influence they have within a series or book.

Just as a book character comes alive and all but leaps off the page for a reader, the hard work and talent of an actor can make their portrayal of a character so seamless that millions of people find it difficult to separate the man from the character.

Despite the fact Hoss Cartwright and Dan Blocker somehow morphed into one larger than life legendary character, it is important to remember the man who breathed life into Hoss.

Born ‘Dan Davis Blocker’ on 10 Dec 1928 in DeKalb, Texas, he weighed 14 lbs and was the biggest baby born in Bowie County, Texas. And just like the meaning behind his character’s nickname of “Hoss”, Dan Blocker was destined to be big and friendly.

A year after Blocker’s birth, his family moved to O’Donnell, Texas (south of Lubbock) where his father operated a grocery store.

After attending Texas Military Academy, Blocker began his undergraduate studies in 1946 at Hardin-Simmons University in Abilene. When a campus production of Arsenic and Old Lace needed a strong man to lift the play’s dead bodies poisoned and buried in the cellar by the spinster aunts, Blocker made his acting debut.

In 1947, Blocker transferred to Sul Ross Teacher’s College in Alpine, Texas. At Sul Ross, he obtained both his undergraduate degree and Master’s Degree. More importantly, he met the love of his life, Dolphia Lee Parker.

During the Korean War, Blocker was drafted into the United States Army. He served with distinction as an “Infantry Sergeant in F Company, 2nd Battalion, 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division from December 1951 through August 1952”. Among his many awards and commendations, Blocker was awarded the Purple Heart.

After being discharged from the military, Blocker and Dolphia were married 25 Aug 1952. They would later become parents of two sons and twin daughters.

To support his family, Blocker taught English and Drama at a high school in Sonora, Texas. He later worked as a 6th grade teacher in Carlsbad, New Mexico. [Pictured: Dan Blocker with his two sons and twin daughters, circa 1960 - Public Domain]

Ultimately, what brought Blocker to California was not acting, but another teaching position and his desire to pursue a Ph.D. at UCLA.

However, not surprisingly, a 6’3”, 300 lb. Texan proved impossible not to notice, especially for Hollywood talent scouts. Dressed in true western attire from a cowboy hat to cowboy boots, Blocker was discovered making a call inside a telephone booth (remember when we had those?). Small parts on westerns such as Gunsmoke, The Rifleman, and Maverick soon followed.

Then, in 1959, Dan Blocker was cast in a role that would become one of the most beloved characters on any western television show – Eric ‘Hoss’ Cartwright.

The immediate success of BONANZA changed the lives of everyone involved. Although the demands of filming a long-running, weekly series can often have a detrimental effect on the personal lives of actors, such was not the case for Dan Blocker. He never lost his focus. Everything he did was for his family.

"Fame frightens me; it truly does, perhaps because I wasn't expecting it. I feel like I have a tiger by the tail. I'm in this business for the money. I need money, like anyone else, because I want to give to my wife and kids a good home and a good life. It's what any man wants to do for his family. Hell, man, I'm just an ordinary guy." ~ Dan Blocker

In a TV GUIDE interview dated 07 Aug 1993, Dirk Blocker (son of Dan Blocker) provided further insight into his father's love for his family. “My father devoted himself 100% to the family. He would rush home to be with us.”

Dirk further revealed that although his father loved portraying the sweet (but not too smart) Hoss, Dan Blocker was an intelligent academic – articulate and highly educated. He was a voracious reader, and conscientious citizen who supported the Civil Rights Movement. Blocker was also a savvy businessman. For those who didn’t know, in 1963 Blocker started the successful Ponderosa/Bonanza Steak House chain of restaurants, and remained one of its owners.

Dan Blocker and his wife, Dolphia, remained happily married until his death from a pulmonary embolism on 13 May 1972. His gravesite is the Blocker family plot in DeKalb, Texas.

Fortunately, episodes of BONANZA remain with us. Some episodes can be found on Youtube. In addition, cable channels such as TVLAND, METV and H&I (Heroes and Icons) feature the series on their regular programming schedules. One can also purchase boxed sets of the series on DVD for their home library.

For me, childhood memories of BONANZA remain strong. I have a vivid memory of how my little brother came running whenever the opening theme song began. We all watched the show. Together. As a family. I still watch the show today, with my family. The writing, the production value, and the performances of Lorne Greene, Pernell Roberts, Michael Landon, and Dan Blocker, as well as some wonderful guest stars, have made this series a much cherished, western classic.

In a time when it can be difficult to find wholesome, family value programming, it is comforting to know that one can still find BONANZA in syndication or available for purchase on DVD format. Today, I found the first episode of the first season on Youtube. If you have never seen it, or forgotten how each character was introduced to viewers, take a peek.

From the opening scene of Ben Cartwright with eldest son, Adam (Pernell Roberts), to the first scene with Hoss (Dan Blocker) then Little Joe (Michael Landon), the audience is clearly shown the different personalities in play as well as foreshadowing about the mothers of Adam and Little Joe. Of course, my favorite scene is when Ben and Hoss enter the house to find Adam and Little Joe having a knock down, drag out fight. At a loss for words--even after he tells them to stop fighting--Ben looks at Hoss.

There is always a peacemaker in the family, and how sweet-tempered Hoss handles the situation will make you smile.

To view the first episode of BONANZA (or at least the first 5 minutes for character introductions), here is the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AAXxh7TwJV8

Thank you for stopping by today. I hope you enjoy the post and learning about DAN BLOCKER as well as BONANZA. ~ AKB

Thursday, April 28, 2016

OUTLAW HIDEOUTS AND BOOK GIVEAWAY! BY PATTI SHERRY-CREWS

OUTLAW HIDEOUTS
Hole-in-the-Wall, Robbers Roost, and Brown’s Park

My favorite scene in the movie Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid is when Butch and Sundance retreat to Hole-in-the-Wall to find that Kid Curry has proclaimed himself head of the gang in Butch’s absence. While Logan and Cassidy spar, you get a glimpse of the hideout: a corral, log cabins, and a good number of matronly looking women in the background busy with domestic chores.

I know this scene well because almost every year in school we were led to the auditorium to watch Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. Now we can argue if this was suitable viewing for young children or not, but because some classmate’s father was connected to the film, we got to see it. The same reason we were also shown Downhill Racer—another excellent choice for schoolchildren.

Suitable or not that scene at Hole-in-the-Wall took root in my imagination.

In my book Margarita and the Hired Gun, Margarita and Michael (a.k.a., Rafferty, a.k.a., Jack) are forced to take a detour after some really bad things happen to them (these events are chronicled in detail in my book Margarita and the Hired Gun). Michael knows he’s taking a taking a risk to bring Margarita to an outlaw hideout, but he wants to live.

When Michael made that decision, I had to create the world of an outlaw hideout. I had a lot of questions.

With such advancements in technology such as the telegraph, and the railroad opening up the west to increased population, life for the man on the run got tougher. In response a series of hideouts sprung up along the outlaw trail from Mexico to Canada. Places were chosen because they were remote and easy to defend. Places like Hole-in-the-Wall, Brown’s Park, and Robbers Roost were spaced so an outlaw could pick up fresh horses, supplies, and ammunition—advantages the perusing posse didn’t have.


I hate to remind you we’re not talking Paul Newman and Robert Redford here. These were characters like Tom Horn, who killed 17, including a defenseless 14-year-old boy. Men who made a living robbing from others. And they all holed up together? How did that work out?

Sometimes the various gangs would ride out together, but mainly they stayed within their own gangs. There was no Head Outlaw King: the gangs separately maintained their own hierarchies.

The gangs seemed to coexist just fine. Not stealing from each other was an actual rule. They entertained themselves while they cooled their heels. Butch Cassidy was famous for organizing horse races, shooting contests, and even throwing barbeques while at Hole-in-the-Wall.



Hole-in-the-Wall was reached by a gap eroded into a rock wall. From its spot on top of a mesa, the outlaws had a 360 degree view and could see anyone approaching. And the surrounding box canyons were perfect places to hide the cattle you’d just stolen, which was good because if caught, the rustler would immediately get invited to be guest of honor at a Necktie party. Hole-in-the-Wall ran as a bandit refuge for 50 years without once being penetrated by the authorities.

To reach Robbers Roost (which Butch Cassidy found a dull place), one has to first cross 40 miles of open desert. If that wasn’t enough to stop you, there were rumors it was well protected with bobby traps and dynamite, which it wasn’t, but the wise lawman gave the place wide berth. In its 30 years of activity the law never reached Robbers Roost.

I read a brief mention that undercover attempts to infiltrate the gangs were unsuccessful. I want to know that story!

How did a hungry outlaw survive in such remote locations? Some of the hideouts were in Mormon territory, and those ranchers and farmers didn’t exactly care for authority either. The ranchers and the outlaws had a reciprocal relationship with an exchange of goods and favors. The hideouts themselves were situated in spots right for grazing, so they were able to kept cattle and chickens of their own.

These were not permanent settlements. The gangs would flow in and out, maybe sheltering in the cabins during the harsh winter months. The enormous area the gangs criss-crossed is astounding. We have an idea how long it takes to cross one state in a car. Can you imagine crossing multiple states on horseback? Jesse James would venture out all over the west and then return to his home base in Missouri, for instance.

I had to people my hideout with characters. Obviously, there were outlaws, but what about women? What would happen when Michael/Jack showed up with Margarita (hint: she stirs up some interest)?

Few women were admitted to the hideouts—only four were ever allowed in Robbers Roost. But there were lady outlaws like Laura Bullion and the very interesting Basset sisters from Brown’s Park. These ladies had various romantic liaisons with the Wild Bunch. And like the Sundance Kid and Etta Place, some outlaws did bring their girlfriends or wives along. There was a report that Cassidy would send women—thought to be prostitutes—into nearby towns for supplies when he didn’t dare show his face.


So, yes, women in the hideouts were not unheard of, but I doubt the amount of feminine domestic activity seen in the movie was accurate. I don’t see any of the above-mentioned women fading into the background wearing dowdy dresses and making lye soap, but there may have been a few behaving like this.


And if you want to see what comes out of showing children inappropriate things, here’s a link to Margarita and the Hired Gun:

http://www.amazon.com/dp/B01EAS7F50/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_PKwexb1H1WD6N via @amazon



I'm giving away a digital copy of MARGARITA AND THE HIRED GUN! Do you think you could have survived with the outlaws in one of these hideouts? Leave me a comment along with your contact information to be entered for the drawing tomorrow evening for a copy of MARGARITA AND THE HIRED GUN. Thanks for stopping by today! I leave you with an excerpt to wet your appetite...

Margarita meets her protector for the first time...

"Rafferty,” said Homer, nodding his head in the direction of the man, who was now moving toward the stairs, eyes still on Margarita.

He walked slowly, swinging one long leg after another, a slight swagger in his shoulders. Unable to bear up under his direct gaze any longer, Margarita looked down at her coffee. Her ears were burning, and her throat was constricted in anticipation, but still, he moved down the stairs and across the room at an unnervingly slow pace.

When he arrived on the scene, the women at the table stopped talking and looked expectantly at him. He didn’t register their presence as he walked past them—to their apparent disappointment. The men playing poker watched him with wary eyes. One of them touched the gun in his holster, nervously. The cowboys stopped talking and drew closer together.

Without a word or invitation, the tall man pulled out the chair across from Margarita. The gun sticking out of his waistband put a lump of fear in her stomach.

He jerked his head in her direction, looking at Homer.

“Why is she here?” he asked in a deep voice, speaking in the same slow pace as he walked. He had an Irish accent, she noted. Homer poured out a cup of the thick, dark liquid for him.

“Rafferty. This is Margarita McIntosh, Jock’s daughter.”

“And she’s here for what reason?” he asked again, in a brusque tone.

Margarita looked up, her face burning with indignation. She was met with quite a sight. The man across from her had a few days’ growth of black whiskers covering the lower part of his face. Jet-black hair stood in loose curls around his head in an uncombed mass. His hair was in need of a wash, strands clumping together with something she didn’t want to dwell on. It was hard to guess his age. Older than she, certainly, but she couldn’t discern much beyond that.

He was without a jacket or shirt, and his long john’s undershirt was pushed up at the elbows, showing long, muscular forearms. Worse, the top buttons of his shirt were unbuttoned, exposing the patch of black hair on his chest. The tight, sweat-stained garment showed every bulge and indent in his lean torso, including his nipples. He was as good as naked.

Margarita tried to hide her shock at this unseemly display. She’d never seen so much of a man’s body before, up close. His eyes bored into her. They were steely eyes the color of indigo set in bloodshot orbs. Her discomfort seemed to amuse him. He narrowed his eyes at her, and a smirk twisted his lips as he observed her watching him. Other than his lips and eyes, he was as still as if he’d been carved in stone. Very economical in his movements, Margarita thought.

“Well, here’s the thing. She’s the job. Jock wants his daughter delivered to his sister in Durango. He wants you to make sure she gets there. Safe—and intact,” Homer said, in a way which made her redden.

The man called Rafferty grinned rakishly, displaying surprisingly even, white teeth. “If it’s safety he after, there’s better ways to transport his precious cargo, I would think.”

“He wants her movements to go undetected.”

Rafferty leaned over the table. She could smell him now. He smelled like sour sweat, whiskey—and cheap perfume. There was some other odor Margarita couldn’t identify, but it was a smell which repelled her.

Repelled her, yes, but she felt an odd measure of arousal at the same time. She raised her handkerchief to her nose to breathe through its lavender-scented folds. Catching her gesture, the dark man glowered at her briefly before the smirk returned to his lips.

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

WHERE THE COTTON FIELDS MET THE RAILROAD


Each of my family members loves history. This means we enjoy finding new destinations and delving into the area’s past. Last week, my youngest daughter and I traveled to Ennis, Texas to look at their famous (well, at least here in Texas it’s famous) Bluebonnet Trail.

From a better year for Bluebonnets,
photo by Nelda Liles
Heavy rains the week before had caused grasses to grow taller than the flowers we sought in some places, but we were not to be deterred. After TexMex for lunch, we started at the Visitor Center. At one time the building had housed the Wells Fargo Freight Office.  I couldn’t help thinking of Wells Fargo stages and the danger they faced.

Armed with brochures and a map, we went next door to the Ennis Railroad and Cultural Heritage Museum. The small but interesting museum was converted from a Van Noy Restaurant building. The restaurant served customers from as many as ten passenger trains a day that once stopped in Ennis.

Sorry I can't get this to turn the right way.
I think I'll stick with my toothpaste.

Those of you not from Texas may not find this as interesting as I do, but this is the way towns all across the country grew.  This could be Anytown, Anystate, USA. Towns blossomed or died due to the railroad.

I had no idea Ennis had been such an important railroad center.  In 1871, the Houston and Texas Central Railroad, a forerunner of the Southern Pacific Railroad, purchased 647 acres of land in Ellis County at a price of $5.00 an acre. This established the line’s northern terminus.

Ennis depot in 1911
This two-story depot burned
A year later, the site was established as the City of Ennis, named after Cornelius Ennis, an early official of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad.  The first train ran through the community in 1872 on its way from Corsicana to Dallas. Citizens of Burnham, a small town to the south, responded violently to being bypassed and attacked the new community. They killed one man and wounded several others.

In its earlier days, Ennis had a “wild west” reputation. At one time the city contained 13 saloons and 6 beer halls. In 1883, Ennis National Bank held the title of the largest bank in the county with $100,000. on deposit. The outlaw gangs of Cole Younger and Sam Bass stopped in Ennis. Younger reportedly checked out the Ennis National Bank but decided it was too well guarded to rob.

 
Sideways, but Ennis
in its early days
In 1873, Jacob Shebasta, an immigrant from Czechoslovakia, was the first of many Eastern Europeans to make this area home. The town has a strong Czech influence. Today the city is home to four Czech social halls as well as the National Polka Festival on Memorial weekend each May. (I have to admit we stopped for Czech pastries to take home. We bought cinnamon rolls and kolaches, which we jokingly call square donuts.)

Dancers at a past National Polka
Festival in Ennis
In 1891, the Texas and New Orleans Railroad, a part of the Southern Pacific, established a division point in Ennis. This led to the construction of shops and a roundhouse that employed several hundred men.  Ennis citizens contributed $25,000, 90 acres of land, and a 43 acre lake toward the project.

Here’s where Ennis officials were clever.  A contract was drawn up that stated that the railroad could NOT move its shops out of town as long as the City of Ennis was able to provide water for the railroad’s use.  The city built three lakes for this purpose: one in 1892, one in 1895, and the last in 1940. Between 1910 and 1915 the railroad tried to move the shops, but the community was supported in the courts, and the shops remained in Ennis.

The city was growing. By 1890, Ennis had two banks, a cotton compress, three cottonseed depositories, a cotton gin, a fruit-canning business, a brickyard, an opera house, and two weekly newspapers, the Local and the Saturday Review. In 1894 Ennis received its second railroad, the Texas Midland, which provided service from Paris, Texas, by 1897.

Old postcard showing cotton bales
waiting to be loaded onto trains

Today, Ennis is known as the Bluebonnet City because of the springtime beauty and abundance of the Texas state flower in and around the city. Ennis was designated by the 1997 State Legislature as the "Official Bluebonnet City of Texas" and home to the "Official Bluebonnet Trail of Texas." This year rains caused the Bluebonnet Festival to be rained out two of the three days. However, the Bluebonnet Trail still offered beautiful vistas.

Photo of bluebonnets and Indian paintbrush
by Nelda Liles

The Kachina Prairie is one of the last remaining examples of Texas blackland prairies. Ennis' first bluebonnet trail was marked through this area in 1939. On our drive along the trail, we were lucky to see a herd of red deer but the Clydesdales were not out during our drive nor were the animals at the exotic farm. We were pleased to see longhorns, though.

Longhorn nibbling on bluebonnets,
grass, and Indian paintbrush

Ennis is home to the Texas Motorplex, a quarter-mile drag racing facility built in 1986 by former funny car driver Billy Meyer. It annually hosts the NHRA O'Reilly Fall Nationals each September, when hundreds of professional and amateur drag racers compete for over $2 million in prize money.

Our day was a lovely experience. We plan to go again next year if the rains don’t interfere with the bluebonnets. We didn't get to see all the lovely Victorian homes so we have to go again.

Sunday, April 24, 2016

Paiute Cradleboards, Basketry, and Weaving by Paty Jager

I had the pleasure of attending an event called Tradition Keepers. It was sponsored by the Harney County Arts Association on my area. There were people showing western and American Indian traditions. I navigated toward the two Paiute women who specialized in basketry and cradleboard making.

Rena Beers is an elder who makes beautiful traditional cradleboards. She is 98 years old. The tradition of making cradleboards was passed down by her parents and grandparents.

To start the process for making the cradleboard she is given or purchases a hide. The hide is soaked in water for several days. She removes the hair with a draw knife. Then rinses the hide and soaks it again, only this time in cow brain for two to three days. This is the process that softens the hide. The next step is wringing out the hide. At this stage the hide is white in color. The hide is then smoked, keeping a close eye on the hide so it doesn't burn. This process gives the hide a warm yellow tone.

During the waiting processes in the hide tanning, Rena gathers willow of uniform size for the bones of the cradle board.  After gathering the sticks, she strips the bark from the willow.  When the hide is properly tanned and the willow is cut to size she begins building the cradleboard. When the board is finished she adds a decoration of colorful bead work. While her cradleboards look like collector pieces, they are used on the reservation for newborns.

Sara Barton specializes in basketry and learned the art of making cradleboards from Rena and another elder who is no longer of this earth.

Sara's basketry projects begin with her gathering willow in the winter. This is the best time to get the sticks when the sap is down and nothing is growing on the sticks.The bark is taken off the sticks and they are split.

In the above photo it shows the stages that a willow stick goes through to become willow thread. What is used in weaving and basketry. This thread is wound and left to dry 6-10 months. Like all wood product they must dry completely before being used or they can shrink and ruin a project that took many hours to make.



The items above were made to show the different types of materials that can be used to weave and make baskets. The different colors are obtained either by the material or how the material is stored. The white circle of willow thread at the top of the photos shows one circle of the willow covered in white cloth and one uncovered. The uncovered will turn the brown you see in the two circular projects. If the willow is kept wrapped in the cloth until used, it remains white for many years before it begins to also darken. 

Sara weaving a hood on a cradleboard
You can see that as she uses the willow thread while weaving it is placed in a bowl of water to make it pliable enough to work with.
 
Sara was wonderful to visit with. She gave me insights into more than just her basketry, cradleboards, and regalia. She had a wonderful spirit about her. Pointing out a photo of her regalia dress that she'd made, she said, "I don't know how to sew, but I wanted to make my regalia dress myself, from the sewing to the decorations. I prayed to the Creator to show me the way and it came to me in a dream, you know, how to do it." This gave me chills because it sounds so much like my character Shandra Higheagle in my mystery series. Not the praying to the Creator, Shandra doesn't believe in her heritage that strongly yet, but the dream fits so well with what I write. She also told me that she wanted the regalia dress not to dance at powwows but to dance for herself. She'd heard that the traditional dance of not just her people but people all over the world was being lost. And it has been passed down that everyone dancing all over the world brings balance. It keeps earth from tipping off it's axis. That is why she dances and teaches her daughter and grandchildren to dance. Dance is joyful and the world needs that joyfulness.

This meeting of Rena and Sara brought joyfulness to me. Not only did I meet two wonderful women, I learned a bit more about their culture and traditions.



Award-winning author Paty Jager and her husband raise alfalfa hay in rural eastern Oregon. She not only writes the western lifestyle, she lives it. All Paty’s work has Western or Native American elements in them along with hints of humor and engaging characters. Her penchant for research takes her on side trips that eventually turn into yet another story.
 

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